Knowledge Translation

Site MapNews: What's new on the site & in the world of wheelchair transportation safetyHomeSearch: Find what you are looking for on this sitePersonnel: Researchers, Staff & Advisory BoardWC19: a US wheelchair transportation safety standardWheelchair Transportation Safety Web Resources Frequently Asked QuestionsResearch: An overview of our research & development projects Knowledge Translation: Education, Publications, State of the Science & Wheelchair StandardsIntroduction: An overview of the RERC on WTS

Publications


Consumer Publications

RESNA Wheelchair Service Provision Guide Approved by RESNA Board of Directors 1/26/11 - A clinical practice position paper from the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA)

RESNA's Position on Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles - A clinical practice position paper from the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA)

Developing a Wheelchair Marking and Tether Strap Program. Cross, D. (2009). D J Cross Consulting: Oakland CA. (459KB PDF)

The Industry Profile on Wheeled Mobility. 2009. Bauer, S.M. & Buning, M.E. (Eds). A project of the RERC on Technology Transfer. SUNY Buffalo (4.1 MB PDF)

Paralyzed Veterans Press (the publisher of Sports N' Spokes and Paraplegia News). The RERC staff is writing a series of articles for the readers of these magazines. We are adding a link to a PDF version of each article as it becomes available.

Do's and Don'ts of Wheelchair Transport Safety. Schneider, L. & Manary, M. (August 2008). School Bus Fleet. Vol ( ) p. 44-48

How to travel more safely while seated in a wheelchair. Fuhrman, S.I. (2008, Spring). Meeting the Challenge Quarterly Journal. Volume 16(4) 10-11. Riverside, CA: Independent Living Partnership.

Wheelchair securement system testing in a Pittsburgh Port Authority transit bus. van Roosmalen, L.; Turkovich, M.; Hobson, D.; Porach, E.; Karg, P. & Allegretti, A. (2008). HERL Newsletter . Vol 7(2) p 5.

Wheelchair transportation safety: Ensuring safe community mobility. Fuhrman, S.I.; Buning, M.E. & Karg, P.E. (2008). OT Practice. Vol 13 (18) 10-14.

Wheelchair Transportation Safety: Experience Combined with New Learning. Buning, M.E. & Karg, P. (2008, Aug 19). Transporting Students with Disabilities and Special Needs Newletter. Vol 19(14) 2-3

Safe transportation for students who use wheelchairs on the school bus. Shutrump, S.E.; Manary, M. & Buning, M.E. (2008). OT Practice. Vol 13(15) 8-12.

Guidelines for Use of Secondary Postural Support Devices by Wheelchair Users During Travel in Motor Vehicles. (2007). Document available as a PDF (450 MB).

Safety and independence of wheelchair seated driers and passengers in private vehicles. ( 2007). ADED Newsletter. April.

Exceptional Parent Magazine: An overview document introducing the following series of 6 articles on Wheelchair Transportation Safety (2007).

Impact survey for WC19 wheelchairs coming in 2009. (2006) Transporting Students with Disabilities. Vol. 17, No. 18, October 17, p.2.

Ride Safe-Information to help you travel more safely while seated your wheelchair in a van or bus (2005). More information is available at: www.travelsafer.org
  • The RideSafe Brochure as a PDF - English (1.5 MB)
  • The RideSafe Brochure as a PDF - Spanish (4.4 MB)
  • For info about obtaining printed, multi-fold, glossy brochures visit the Education ToolBox

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Peer Reviewed Journal Articles/Periodicals

Buning, M.E.; Bertocci, G.E.; Schneider, L.W.; Manary, M.M.; Karg, P.; Brown, D.; Johnson, S. (2012). RESNA's position on Wheelchairs used as seats in motor vehicles. Assistive Technology, 24, 1-10.

Frost, K.; Van Roosmalen, L.; Bertocci, G.; Cross, D. (2012). Wheeled Mobility Device Transportation Safety in Fixed Route and Demand-Responsive Public Transit Vehicles within the United States. Assistive Technology, 24, 87-101.

Buning, M.E.; Karg, P.E. (2011). School bus transportation for students seated in wheelchairs. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 4, 259-268.

Buning, M.E.; Karg, P.E. (2011). Wheelchair transportation safety on school buses: Stakeholder recommendations for priority issues and actions. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 4, 269-278.

Karg, P.; Cotzin, B.; Manary, M.; Fuhrman, S. (2011). Guidelines for the use of wheelchair postural support devices during travel in motor vehicles. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 4(4), 251-257.

Brinkey, L.; Manary, M.; Santioni, D. (2011). Development of an alternative five-point restraint harness to accommodate children with special healthcare needs in child safety seats. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 4(4), 289-300.

Manary, M.; Schneider, L. (2011). Applying basic principles of child passenger safety to improving transportation safety for children who travel while seated in wheelchairs. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 4(4), 241-50.

Salipur, Z.; Frost, K.; Bertocci, G. (2012). Investigation of wheelchair instability during transport in large, accessible transit vehicles. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 49(6), tbd.

van Roosmalen, L.; Karg, P.; Hobson, D.; Turkovich, M.; Porach, E. (2011). User evaluation of three wheelchair securement systems in large accessible transit vehicles. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 48(7), 823–838.

Ahmed M, Campbell-Kyureghyan N, Frost K, Bertocci G (2012). Ergonomic evaluation of a wheelchair transportation securement system. WORK-A JOURNAL OF PREVENTION ASSESSMENT & REHABILITATION, 41, 4924-4930.


Quality of life technology: The state of personal transportation. van Roosmalen L, Paquin GJ, and Steinfeld AM (2011). Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 21(1), 111-125.


Ingress/egress incidents involving wheelchair users in a fixed-route public transit environment. Frost K, Bertocci G, Sison S (2010). Journal of Public Transportation, 13(4), 47-68

Wheelchair transportation safety: An update. Buning, ME (2010). Directions, 4, 39-43.


Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied manual wheelchair subjected to frontal impact. D'Souza, R. & Bertocci, G. (2009). Medical Engineering and Physics. 32(3): 272-79.

Characterizations of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact. Fuhrman, S.; Karg, P. & Bertocci, G. (2009). Medical Engineering and Physics. 32(3): 280-86.

Retrospective review of adverse incidents involving passengers seated in wheeled mobility devices while traveling in large accessible transit vehicles. Frost, K & Bertocci, G. (2009). Medical Engineering and Physics. 32(3): 230-236.

WC19: A Wheelchair Transportation Safety Standard - Experience to Date and Future Directions. Manary, M.A., Ritchie, N. & Schneider, L.W. (2009). Medical Engineering & Physics. (32) 3, pp. 263-271.

Using In-Depth Investigations to Identify Transportation Safety Issues for Wheelchair-Seated Occupants of Motor Vehicles. Schneider, L.W., Klinich, K.D., Moore, J.L., & MacWilliams, J.B. (2009) Medical Engineering and Physics. (32) 3, pp. 237-247.

Transportation safety standards for wheelchair users: A review of voluntary equipment standards for improved safety, usability and independence of wheelchair seated travelers. Schneider, L.W.; Hobson, D.A. & Bertocci, G.E. (2008). Assistive Technology. 20(4): 222-33.

Occupant restraint preferences of wheelchair occupants traveling in motor vehicles. van Roosmalen, L; Lutgendorf, M & Manary, M.A. (2008). Assistive Technology. 20(4): 181-93.

Effect of wheelchair headrest use during rear impact on pediatric head and neck injury outcomes. (2008). Accident Analysis and Prevention. 40(4): 1595-1603.


Introduction: Special Issue on Wheelchair Transportation Safety. Bertocci, G.E. (2007). Assistive Technology. 19(4): 165.

Riding a bus while seated in a wheelchair: A pilot study of attitudes and behavior regarding safety practices. Buning, M.E.; Getchell, C.A.; Bertocci, G.E. & Fitzgerald S.G. (2007). Assistive Technology. 19(4): 166-179.

Motor vehicle transportation use and related adverse events among persons who use wheelchairs. Fitzgerald SG, Songer T.J., Rotko K.A. & Karg P.E. (2007). ssistive Technology. 19(4): 180-187.

Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system issues in the real world and the virtual world: Combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Wolf, P.; van Roosmalen, L. & Bertocci, G.E. (2007). Assistive Technology. 19(4) 188-198.

Bus dynamics for mobility-aid securement design. Zaworski, J.R.; Hunter-Zaworski; K.M. & Baldwin, M. (2007). Assistive Technology. 19(4): 200-209.

Towards the next generation of wheelchair securement: Development of a demonstration UDIG-compatible wheelchair docking device. Hobson, D.A. & van Roosmalen, L. (2007). Assistive Technology. 19(4): 210-222.

Development and validation of a frontal impact 6-yr-old occupant and wheelchair model. Ha, D.R.; Bertocci G.E. & Jategaonkar R. (2007). Assistive Technology. 19(4): 223-238.

Injury risk of a 6-year-old wheelchair seated occupant in a frontal motor vehicle impact: Sled testing analysis. Ha, D.R. & Bertocci, G.E. (2007). Medical Engineering & Physics. 29(7): 729-38. Epub 2007 Jan 23.


Pilot study of safety belt usability for vehicle occupants seated in wheelchairs. van Roosmalen, L.; Reed, M.P. & Bertocci, G.E. (2005). Assistive Technology, Vol.17:23-36.

A pilot study of a method for assessing the reach capability of wheelchair users for safety belt design. Reed, M. & van Roosmalen, L. (2005). Applied Ergonomics Vol. 36(5): 523-528.


Wheelchair caster loading during frontal impact. Bertocci, G.E. & van Roosmalen, L. (2003). Assistive Technology, Vol. 15:105-112.

The effects of wheelchair-seating stiffness and energy absorption on occupant frontal impact kinematics and submarining risk using computer simulation. Bertocci, G.E.; Souza, A.L. & Szobota, S. (2003). Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, Vol. 40(2): 125-130.

Appropriate protection for wheelchair riders on public transit buses. Shaw, G. & Gillispie, T. (2003). Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, Jul/Aug, Vol. 40(4): 309-320.


Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles. van Roosmalen, L.; Bertocci, G.E.; Hobson, D.A. & Karg, P.E. (2002). Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, Vol. 39(1):83-93.

Evaluation of wheelchair sling seat and sling back crashworthiness. Ha, D.R.; Bertocci, G.E.; Karg, P.E. & Deemer, E. (2002). Medical Engineering & Physics, Vol. 24: 441-448.


Wheelchairs used as seats in motor vehicles: Seat loading in frontal impact testing. Bertocci, G.E.; Manary, M.A. & Ha, D.R. (2001). Medical Engineering & Physics, Vol. 23: 679-685.

Wheelchair integrated occupant restraints: Feasibility in frontal impact. van Roosmalen L., Bertocci G.E., Ha D.R. & Karg P.E. (2001). Medical Engineering & Physics, Vol. 23:697-698.

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Books/Book Chapters

Chapter 19: High-technology adaptation to compensate for disability. Buning, M.E. (2007). In C. Trombly & M. Radomsky (Eds.) Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction, 6th Edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Wheelchair transportation safety. Karg, P.E.; Bertocci, G.E.; van Roosmalen, L.; Hobson, D.A. & Furui T. (2007). In An Introduction to Rehabilitation Engineering. Cooper, R; Ohnabe, H & Hobson, DA (Eds.) London: Taylor and Francis Group; p. 187-209.

Wheelchair transportation safety. (2005). Bertocci G.E. In Therapeutic Interventions for Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries, Druin, E. & Sisto, S.A. (Eds). Philadelphia: Elseveir Science.

Wheelchairs, wheelchair tiedowns, and occupant restraints for improved safety and crash protection. (2005) Schneider, L.W. & Manary, M.A. In Driver Rehabilitation and Community Mobility Principles and Practices. Pellerito, J.M. (Ed). Philadelphia: Elsevier Press; pp. 357-372.

Manual wheelchair seating and mobility. (2003). Buning, M.E. & Schmeler, M.R. In Willard & Spackman’s Occupational Therapy, 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Proceedings of Meetings and Symposia

van Roosmalen, L; Turkovich, M; Karg, P (2012). Selecting and anthrompomorphic test device for low acceleration wheelchair transportation testing. Proceedings of the 35th RESNA Conference. Baltimore, MD: RESNA Press.


Social Networking and Ethical Considerations for Rehabilitation Professionals Molinero A, Eubank A (2011). . Proceedings of the 2011 RESNA/FIDDCAT Conference. Toronto, ON, Canada.

A Seatbelt Deployment System For Drivers Seated in Wheelchairs. Weir Q, Manary M, Eby B, Orton N, Schneider LW (2011). Proceedings of the 2011 RESNA/FIDDCAT Conference. Toronto, ON, Canada.


A Dynamic Test Method for Simulating Scooter- Seated Passenger Injury Scenarios Linda van Roosmalen PhD, Erik Porach BS, Michael Turkovich PhD, Loshna Krishnan BS, Patricia Karg MS (2011)
Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. 5-8, 2011 Toronto, Canada

Risk of Lower Extremity Injury On Wheelchair-Seated Michael Turkovich, PhD, Linda van Roosmalen, PhD (2011)
Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. 5-8, 2011 Toronto, Canada

Students Who Ride Seated in Wheelchairs: Survey of State Directors Mary Ellen Buning, Patricia Karg, Karen Frost (2011). Poster at the Annual RESNA Conference. June. 5-8, 2011 Toronto, Canada


Proper Occupant Restraint Positioning Linda van Roosmalen PhD (2010). NMEDA – Reno, NV


Wheelchair securement in public transportation. van Roosmalen, L. Hobson, D., Turkovich, M; Karg, P. & Porach, E. (2009). The Proceedings of the International Seating Symposium. p. 255-56. Orlando, FL.

Wheelchair securement and occupant restraint practices in large accessible transit vehicles. Frost, K & Bertocci, B. (2009). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. New Orleans, LA

Effect of positioning of wheelchair mounted headrests during transportation in a motor vehicle on pediatric neck injury criteria outcomes. (2009). Fuhrman, S.I.; Karg, P.E. & Bertocci, G.E. Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. New Orleans, LA.

Effect of pelvic belt anchoring location on wheelchair seating system loads in frontal impact motor vehicle crashes. Manary, M.A.; Ritchie, N.L.; Flannagan, C.A.; Bertocci, G.E. & Schneider, L.W. (2009). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. New Orleans, LA.

The role of armrest design in positioning of belt restraints on wheelchair seated drivers. Ritchie, N.L.; Manary, M.A.; van Roosmalen, L & Schneider, L.W. (2009). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. New Orleans, LA.

Preliminary assessment of wheelchair securement systems in a large accessible transit vehicle. Turkovich, M.J.; van Roosmalen, L; Hobson, D.A. & Porach, E.A. (2009). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. New Orleans, LA.


Potential solutions to improve the safety of wheelchair seated drivers and passengers in private vehicles. van Roosmalen, L. & de Jongh, I. (2008). Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Telehealth and Assistive Technologies. p. 151-55. Baltimore, MD

Development of a pediatric manual wheelchiar rear impact computer simulation model. Fuhrman, S. I.; Karg, P. & Bertocci, G. (2008). The Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology. July. Pittsburgh, PA.

Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact. D'Souza, R. & Bertocci, G. (2008). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Arlington, VA.

Incorporating wheelchair transportation safety into wheelchair prescription practices. Fuhrman, S.I. & Karg, P.E. (2008). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Arlington, VA.

Development and validation of rear impact computer simulation model of an adult manual transit wheelchair with a seated occupant. Salipur, Z. & Bertocci, G. (2008). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Arlington, VA.

Patterns of occupied wheelchair frame response in forward-facing frontal-impact sled tests. Samoresov, J.E.; Manary, M.; Skowronska, M.M.; Bertocci, G.E. & Schneider, L.W. (2008). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Arlington, VA.

Wheelchair Ingress/egress activities in large accessible transit vehicles. Sison, S.; Frost, K. & Bertocci, G. (2008). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Arlington, VA.

Safety system and usability issues for wheelchair seated drivers and passengers of private vehicles: A pilot study. van Roosmalen, L.; de Jongh, I; Ritchie, N. & Schneider, S. ( 2008). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Arlington, VA.

Large accessible transit vehicles. Sison, S. (2008). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Arlington, VA. (Honorable mention in Paralyzed Veterans of America Student Scientific Paper Competition.)


Usability and safety issues for wheelchair seated drivers in private vehicles. van Roosmalen, L. (2007). The Proceedings of the International Seating Symposium. March. Vancouver, BC.

Effect of manual wheelchair caster stiffness and energy absorption on wheelchair-occupant kinematics during a frontal impact using computer simulation. D'Souza, R.; Bertocci, G.E. & van Roosmalen, L. (2007). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Phoenix, AZ.

Wheelchair rider incidents on public transit buses: A 4-year retrospective review of metropolitan transit agency records. Frost, K.A. & Bertocci, G.E. (2007). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Phoenix, AZ.

Effect of wheelchair headrest use during rear impact on pediatric head and neck injury risk outcomes. Fuhrman, S.I.; Karg, P.E. & Bertocci, G.E. (2007). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Phoenix, AZ.

Crashworthiness of forward-facing wheelchairs under rear impact conditions. Manary, MA; Bezaire, BA; Bertocci, GE; Salipur,Z. & Schneider, L.W. (2007). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Phoenix, AZ.

Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading associated with an adult manual ANSI WC19 transit wheelchair with a seated 50th percentile ATD exposed to rear impact. Salipur, Z.; Bertocci, G.E.; Manary, M.A. & Ritchie, N.L. (2007). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Phoenix, AZ.

User centered design of a wheelchair-anchored safety restraint. van Roosmalen, L. & Sellers, J. (2007). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Phoenix, AZ.


Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and WTORs loading during rear impact. Fuhrman, S.I.; Karg, P.E. & Bertocci, G.E. (2006). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Use and performance of occupant restraint systems for wheelchair users in real-world crashes. Klinich, K.D.; Moore, J.L.; Manary, M.A. & Schneider, L.W. (2006). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Design and testing of a prototype wheelchair-integrated, five-point occupant restraint system for children who remain seated in wheelchairs when traveling in motor vehicles. Manary, M.A.; Whalen, J.M.; Ritchie, N.L. & Schneider, L.W. (2006). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Validation of a surrogate wheelchair base for evaluation of wheelchair seating system crashworthiness. Ritchie, N.L.; Manary, M.A.; Bertocci, G.E. & Schneider, L.W. (2006). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Examination of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORs): Use and effect on motor vehicle related injuries. Rotko, K.A.; Karg, P.E.; Songer, T.J. & Fitzgerald, S.G. (2006). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.


Characteristics of injury events among wheelchair users in motor vehicle transport. Songer, T.J.; Fitzgerald, S.G. & Rotko, K.A. (2005). Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.

Prescription patterns of secondary postural support devices and concerns related to their use during vehicle transportation. Fuhrman, S.I.; Buning, M.E. & Karg, P.E. (2005). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Development of manual pediatric transit wheelchair design guidelines using computer simulation. Ha, D.R.; Bertocci, G.E. & Jategaonkar, R.  (2005). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Wheelchair and crash dummy response in far-side lateral impacts. Manary, M.A. & Schneider, L.W. (2005). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Injury of wheelchair users as a result of loading and unloading from a motor vehicle. Rotko, K.A.; Songer, T.J.; Fitzgerald, S.G. & Karg, P.E. (2005). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Design criteria for a wheelchair integrated pelvic restraint device. Urankar, S.A. & van Roosmalen, L.  (2005). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.


Transportation characteristics for individuals who use wheelchairs. Fitzgerald S, Songer T.J. & Rotko K.A.  (2004). 50th Annual American Paraplegia Society Conference, Las Vegas, NV, September .

Injury risk to wheelchair occupants using motor vehicle transportation. Songer, T.J.; Fitzgerald, S.G. & Rotko, K.A.  (2004). Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Key Biscayne, FL. October.

Real-world wheelchair transportation safety: A study of wheelchair user attitudes, knowledge, and behavior when riding fixed-route transportation. Armstrong, C.M. & Buning, M.E. (2004). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Orlando, FL.

Development and validation of a frontal impact 6 year-old wheelchair-seated occupant computer model. Ha, D.R.; Bertocci, G.E. & Jategaonkar, R. (2004). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Orlando, FL.

Wheelchair seatback loads and deflections in rear impacts. Manary, M.A. & Schneider, L.W. (2004). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Orlando, FL.

Characteristics of wheelchair users and associated motor vehicle transportation usage. Rotko, K.A.; Songer, T.J.; Fitzgerald, S.G. & Karg P.E. (2004). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Orlando, FL.

Safety belt usability and reach capability of wheelchair users. van Roosmalen, L.; Reed, M.P. & Bertocci, G.E. (2004). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Orlando, FL.


Occupant restraint preferences from adult and pediatric wheelchair users. van Roosmalen, L.; Manary, M.A. & Armstrong, C.M. (2003).  Proceedings of the International Seating Symposium, Orlando, FL.

Incidence of motor vehicle accidents in individuals who use wheelchairs. Fitzgerald, S.G. & Songer, T.J. (2003). Proceedings International Seating Symposium, Orlando, Florida, March.

Computer simulation of a frontal impact wheelchair-seated 6 year old. Ha, D.R.; Jategaonkar, R. & Bertocci, G.E.  (2003). MADYMO User's Meeting of the America's, Troy, MI, October 1.

User preferences on wheelchair integrated restraint design. Armstrong, C.M.; van Roosmalen, L.; Manary, M.A. & Bertocci, G.E. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

An investigation of manual wheelchair seat pan and seat back loading associated with various wheelchair design parameters using computer crash simulation. Ha, D.R. & Bertocci, G.E. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Patterns of wheelchair response and seating-system failures in frontal-impact sled tests. Manary, M.A.; Woodruff, L.; Bertocci, G.E., & Schneider, L.W. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Characteristics of motor vehicle transportation use by wheelchair riders. Rotko, K.A.; Songer, T.J.; Fitzgerald, S.G. & Karg, P.E. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Development of voluntary standards for improved transportation safety of wheelchair-seated occupants. Schneider, L.W.; Hobson, D.A. & Bertocci, G.E. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Investigation of motor-vehicle crashes involving wheelchair-seated occupants. Schneider, L.W.; Moore, J. & MacWilliams, J. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Appropriate crash protection for wheelchair riders on large public transit buses. Shaw, G. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Development of a pendulum impact tester to evaluate wheelchair caster crashworthiness. Tharakeshwarappa, N; van Roosmalen, L.; Bertocci, G.E.; Duncan, J.; Guo, S.F. & Cooper, R.A. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Effect of universal docking interface geometry (UDIG) placement on wheelchair and occupant kinematics. van Roosmalen, L.; Reeves, S. & Hobson, D.A. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Wheelchair caster loading during frontal motor vehicle impact. van Roosmalen, L. & Bertocci, G.E. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.

Wheelchair and occupant kinematics during 'low-g' turning and braking. van Roosmalen, L.; Bertocci, G.E. & Herring, D. (2003). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Atlanta, GA.


Issues related to the location of a universal interface for automated wheelchair securement. van Roosmalen, L & Hobson, D.A. (2002). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Minneapolis, MN.

Wheelchair tiedown loads and occupant restraint loads associated with various occupant sizes in frontal impact testing. Ha, D.R. & Bertocci, G.E. (2002). Proceedings of the Annual RESNA Conference. June. Minneapolis, MN.

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Technical/Research Reports

State of the science in wheelchair transportation safety: Final report. Karg, P.E. & Buning, M.E., (Eds). Pittsburgh: RERC on Wheelchair Transportation Safety, 2005.

  1. Barriers to the development, marketing, purchase, and proper use of transit-safety technologies. Schneider, L.W.; Manary, M.A., & Buning, M.E. (2005). White paper written for the RERC on Wheelchair Transportation Safety Workshop, January 17.
  2. Wheelchair seating systems for use in transportation. Bertocci, G.E.; Karg, P.E. & Fuhrman, S.I. (2005). White paper written for the RERC on Wheelchair Transportation Safety Workshop, January 17.
  3. Problem-solving the next generation of wheelchair securement for use in public transport vehicles. Hobson, D.A. (2005). White paper written for the RERC on Wheelchair Transportation Safety Workshop, January 17.
  4. Looking toward future wheelchair transportation: What should be our vision and how do we realize it? van Roosmalen, L. & Hobson, D.A. (2005). White paper written for the RERC on Wheelchair Transportation Safety Workshop, January 17.

Development of a universal auto-docking wheelchair securement system: Phase II - final report from University of Pittsburgh and Kinedyne Corporation, Hobson, D. (2005).

A new database of child anthropometry and seated posture for automotive safety applications. Reed, MP; Ebert, SM; Manary, MA; Klinich, KD  & Schneider, LW. (2005). SAE Technical paper 2005-01-1837.  SAE International, Warrendale, PA. 

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Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses 

The Effects of Obesity on Occupant Injury Risk in Frontal Impact: A Computer Modeling Approach. Turkovich M (2010). University of Pittsburgh: Ph.D. Dissertation.

An ergonomic pilot study of TARC bus drivers during wheelchair securement activities. Ahmed, M (2010). University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee: Master's Thesis, Industrial Engineering.

Employing computer simulation in the design and analysis of an energy absorbing wheelchair caster. Raymond D'Souza. (2008). University of Louisville, Speed School of Engineering [Masters] Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Rear impact crashworthiness of a manual WC19 wheelchair occupied by a 50th percentile ATD. Zdravko Salipur. (2008). University of Louisville, Speed School of Engineering [Masters] Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Investigation of wheelchair ingress/egress activities in large accessible transit vehicles and evaluation of ADA ramp guidlines for improved ramp safety and usability. Sheryll Sison. (2008.) University of Louisville, Speed School of Engineering [Masters] Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Design of a Safety System for (Power) Wheelchair-Seated Car Drivers. Ilona de Jongh. (2008). Delft University of Technology [Masters] Department of Industrial Design Engineering.

Wheelchair securement and occupant restraints: a cross-sectional analysis of use and effect on motor vehicle related injuries. Ashley K. Rotko.  (2005). University of Pittsburgh, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences [Masters] Department of Rehabilitation Science and Technology.

Pediatric wheelchair transportation safety: transit manual wheelchair design guidelines and injury risk of 6-year old children in a frontal motor vehicle impact. Ha, DongRan. (2004). University of Pittsburgh, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences [PhD]. Department of Rehabilitation Science and Technology.

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Last updated: July 13, 2012

Acknowledgement:

Department of Education, Washington DC
This Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC) on Wheelchair Transportation Safety
is funded by NIDRR grant #H133E060064

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